VII. Klimaschäden

31. Welche Auswirkungen hat der Klimawandel auf die Tierwelt?

1. Hailer, F., Kutschera, V. E., Hallström, B. M., Klassert, D., Fain, S. R., Leonard, J. A., Arnason, U., Janke, A. (2012): Nuclear Genomic Sequences Reveal that Polar Bears Are an Old and Distinct Bear Lineage: Science 336 (6079), 344-347.

2. Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., Welch, A. J., Ratan, A., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Zhao, F., Kim, H. L., Burhans, R. C., Drautz, D. I., Wittekindt, N. E., Tomsho, L. P., Ibarra-Laclette, E., Herrera-Estrella, L., Peacock, E., Farley, S., Sage, G. K., Rode, K., Obbard, M., Montiel, R., Bachmann, L., Ingólfsson, Ó., Aars, J., Mailund, T., Wiig, Ø., Talbot, S. L., Lindqvist, C. (2012): Polar and brown bear genomes reveal ancient admixture and demographic footprints of past climate change: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (36), E2382-E2390.

3. Cronin, T. M., Cronin, M. A. (2015): Biological response to climate change in the Arctic Ocean: the view from the past: arktos 1 (1), 4.

4. Pilfold, N. W., McCall, A., Derocher, A. E., Lunn, N. J., Richardson, E. (2017): Migratory response of polar bears to sea ice loss: to swim or not to swim: Ecography 40 (1), 189-199.

5. Zoological Society of San Diego (2016): Study indicates polar bears are swimming more as sea ice retreats 19.4.2016,

6. Pagano, A. M., Durner, G. M., Amstrup, S. C., Simac, K. S., York, G. S. (2012): Long-distance swimming by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea during years of extensive open water: Canadian Journal of Zoology 90 (5), 663-676.

7. American Museum of Natural History (2015): Polar bears may survive ice melt, with or without seals: 4.9.2015,

8. Thiemann, G. W., Iverson, S. J., Stirling, I. (2008): Polar bear diets and Arctic marine food webs: Insights from fatty acid analysis: Ecological Monographs 78 (4), 591-613.

9. Sellheim, N. (2020): The International Legal Framework for Polar Bears, International Marine Mammal Law: Cham, Springer International Publishing, S. 157-173.

10. Hamilton, S. G., Derocher, A. E. (2019): Assessment of global polar bear abundance and vulnerability: Animal Conservation 22 (1), 83-95.

11. York, J., Dowsley, M., Cornwell, A., Kuc, M., Taylor, M. (2016): Demographic and traditional knowledge perspectives on the current status of Canadian polar bear subpopulations: Ecology and Evolution 6 (9), 2897-2924.

12. Pro Wildlife (2020): Eisbären vor Jagd und Handel schützen:

13. Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseen (2014): Klimawandel: Temperaturerhöhung trifft besonders Tierarten in den Tropen: 9.7.2014,

14. Sullivan, C. (2015): Ice loss benefits Adélie penguins—For now: Eos 96.

15. Younger, J., Emmerson, L., Southwell, C., Lelliott, P., Miller, K. (2015): Proliferation of East Antarctic Adélie penguins in response to historical deglaciation: BMC Evolutionary Biology 15 (1), 236.

16. Gao, Y., Yang, L., Yang, W., Wang, Y., Xie, Z., Sun, L. (2019): Dynamics of penguin population size and food availability at Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, during the last millennium: A solar control: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 516, 220-231.

17. Baroni, C., Orombelli, G. (1994): Abandoned penguin rookeries as Holocene paleoclimatic indicators in Antarctica: Geology 22 (1), 23-26.

18. Alheit, J., Licandro, P., Coombs, S., Garcia, A., Giráldez, A., Santamaría, M. T. G., Slotte, A., Tsikliras, A. C. (2014): Reprint of “Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic”: Journal of Marine Systems 133, 88-102.

19. Kniebusch, M., Meier, H. E. M., Neumann, T., Börgel, F. (2019): Temperature Variability of the Baltic Sea Since 1850 and Attribution to Atmospheric Forcing Variables: Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 124 (6), 4168-4187.

20. neues deutschland (2019): Den Heringen wird’s zu warm: 9.3.2019,

21. taz (2018): Heringsfischerei in der Ostsee: Wir haben kein Öko-Etikett für dich 23.8.2018,!5527662/

22. McClatchie, S., Hendy, I. L., Thompson, A. R., Watson, W. (2017): Collapse and recovery of forage fish populations prior to commercial exploitation: Geophysical Research Letters 44 (4), 1877-1885.

23. Salvatteci, R., Field, D., Gutiérrez, D., Baumgartner, T., Ferreira, V., Ortlieb, L., Sifeddine, A., Grados, D., Bertrand, A. (2018): Multifarious anchovy and sardine regimes in the Humboldt Current System during the last 150 years: Global Change Biology 24 (3), 1055-1068.

24. Reddin, C. J., Kocsis, Á. T., Kiessling, W. (2018): Marine invertebrate migrations trace climate change over 450 million years: Global Ecology and Biogeography 27 (6), 704-713.

25. Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (2018): Meerestiere folgen seit Jahrmillionen ihrem bevorzugten Klima: 8.5.2018,

26. Cheung, W. W. L., Sarmiento, J. L., Dunne, J., Frölicher, T. L., Lam, V. W. Y., Deng Palomares, M. L., Watson, R., Pauly, D. (2013): Shrinking of fishes exacerbates impacts of global ocean changes on marine ecosystems: Nature Climate Change 3 (3), 254-258.

27. Lefevre, S., McKenzie, D. J., Nilsson, G. E. (2017): Models projecting the fate of fish populations under climate change need to be based on valid physiological mechanisms: Global Change Biology 23 (9), 3449-3459.

28. University of Oslo (2017): Some widely publicized papers suggesting that fishes and fish catches will be smaller in the future are based on false assumptions: 17.2.2017,

29. Die Welt (2012): Klimawandel macht Fische im Ozean kleiner: 3.10.2012,

30. Sandblom, E., Clark, T. D., Gräns, A., Ekström, A., Brijs, J., Sundström, L. F., Odelström, A., Adill, A., Aho, T., Jutfelt, F. (2016): Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings: Nature Communications 7 (1), 11447.

31. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (2016): Fish can adapt some to warmer ocean waters, but not necessarily to extreme heat: 18.5.2016,

32. Sánchez-Bayo, F., Wyckhuys, K. A. G. (2019): Worldwide decline of the entomofauna: A review of its drivers: Biological Conservation 232, 8-27.

33. Die Zeit (2019): Studie bestätigt globales Insektensterben: 11.2.2019,

34. Komonen, A., Halme, P., Kotiaho, J. S. (2019): Alarmist by bad design: Strongly popularized unsubstantiated claims undermine credibility of conservation science: Rethinking Ecology 4.

35. Pensoft Publishers (2019): ‚Insectageddon‘ is ‚alarmist by bad design‘: Scientists point out the study’s major flaws: 19.3.2019,

36. Willig, M. R., Woolbright, L., Presley, S. J., Schowalter, T. D., Waide, R. B., Heartsill Scalley, T., Zimmerman, J. K., González, G., Lugo, A. E. (2019): Populations are not declining and food webs are not collapsing at the Luquillo Experimental Forest: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 116 (25), 12143-12144.

37. Lingenhöhl, D. (2017): Insektensterben in Deutschland bestätigt: 19.10.2017,

38. Deutsche Wildtier Stiftung (2018): Artenschutz als Produktionsziel: 20.4.2018,

39. Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (2018): Insektensterben durch Lichtverschmutzung!?: 19.6.2018,

40. DLR (2019): DLR-Studie zu Wechselwirkungen von Fluginsekten und Windparks: 26.3.2019,

41. Trieb, F. (2018): Interference of Flying Insects and Wind Parks (FliWip) – Study Report: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt,