I. Moderne Erwärmung im Licht der Klimageschichte

2. Mittelalterliche Wärmeperiode und Kleine Eiszeit: Vernachlässigbare lokale Phänomene?

1. Lasher, G. E., Axford, Y. (2019): Medieval warmth confirmed at the Norse Eastern Settlement in Greenland: Geology 47 (3), 267-270.

2. Massé, G., Rowland, S. J., Sicre, M.-A., Jacob, J., Jansen, E., Belt, S. T. (2008): Abrupt climate changes for Iceland during the last millennium: Evidence from high resolution sea ice reconstructions: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269 (3), 565-569.

3. Henriksen, P. S. (2014): Norse agriculture in Greenland – farming at the northern frontier, in Gulløv, H. C., ed., Northern Worlds – landscapes, interactions and dynamics, Volume 22: Copenhagen, National Museum: Studies in Archaeology & History, S. 423-431.

4. Hartman, S., Ogilvie, A. E. J., Ingimundarson, J. H., Dugmore, A. J., Hambrecht, G., McGovern, T. H. (2017): Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities: Global and Planetary Change 156, 123-139.

5. Larsen, N. K., Kjær, K. H., Lecavalier, B., Bjørk, A. A., Colding, S., Huybrechts, P., Jakobsen, K. E., Kjeldsen, K. K., Knudsen, K.-L., Odgaard, B. V., Olsen, J. (2015): The response of the southern Greenland ice sheet to the Holocene thermal maximum: Geology 43 (4), 291-294.

6. Lilleøren, K. S., Etzelmüller, B., Schuler, T. V., Gisnås, K., Humlum, O. (2012): The relative age of mountain permafrost — estimation of Holocene permafrost limits in Norway: Global and Planetary Change 92-93, 209-223.

7. Niedźwiedź, T., Glaser, R., Hansson, D., Helama, S., Klimenko, V., Łupikasza, E., Małarzewski, Ł., Nordli, Ø., Przybylak, R., Riemann, D., Solomina, O. (2015): The Historical Time Frame (Past 1000 Years), in The, B. I. I. A. T., ed., Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin: Cham, Springer International Publishing, S. 51-65.

8. Mangini, A., Spötl, C., Verdesa, P. (2005): Reconstruction of temperature in the Central Alps during the past 2000 yr from a delta18O stalagmite record: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 235, 741-751.

9. Lüning, S., Schulte, L., Garcés-Pastor, S., Danladi, I. B., Gałka, M. (2019): The Medieval Climate Anomaly in the Mediterranean Region: Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 34 (10), 1625-1649.

10. Treydte, K. S., Frank, D. C., Saurer, M., Helle, G., Schleser, G. H., Esper, J. (2009): Impact of climate and CO2 on a millennium-long tree-ring carbon isotope record: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73 (16), 4635-4647.

11. Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. E., Lin, P.-N., Henderson, K., Mashiotta, T. A. (2003): Tropical Glacier and Ice Core Evidence of Climate Change on Annual to Millennial Time Scales: Climatic Change 59 (1), 137-155.

12. He, Y., Liu, W., Zhao, C., Wang, Z., Wang, H., Liu, Y., Qin, X., Hu, Q., An, Z., Liu, Z. (2013): Solar influenced late Holocene temperature changes on the northern Tibetan Plateau: Chinese Science Bulletin 58 (9), 1053-1059.

13. Andrén, E., Klimaschewski, A., Self, A. E., St. Amour, N., Andreev, A. A., Bennett, K. D., Conley, D. J., Edwards, T. W. D., Solovieva, N., Hammarlund, D. (2015): Holocene climate and environmental change in north-eastern Kamchatka (Russian Far East), inferred from a multi-proxy study of lake sediments: Global and Planetary Change 134, 41-54.

14. Barclay, D. J., Wiles, G. C., Calkin, P. E. (2009): Tree-ring crossdates for a First Millennium AD advance of Tebenkof Glacier, southern Alaska: Quaternary Research 71 (1), 22-26.

15. Fortin, M.-C., Gajewski, K. (2016): Multiproxy paleoecological evidence of Holocene climatic changes on the Boothia Peninsula, Canadian Arctic: Quaternary Research 85 (3), 347-357.

16. Moschen, R., Kühl, N., Peters, S., Vos, H., Lücke, A. (2011): Temperature variability at Dürres Maar, Germany during the Migration Period and at High Medieval Times, inferred from stable carbon isotopes of Sphagnum cellulose: Clim. Past 7, 1011-1026.

17. IPCC (2013): Klimaänderung 2013: Wissenschaftliche Grundlagen. Zusammenfassung für politische Entscheidungsträger (deutsche Übersetzung): http://www.climatechange2013.org/report/wgi-ar5-translations-other/

18. Der IPCC versieht viele seiner Texte mit einer zusätzlichen Einschätzung, wie zuverlässig die jeweilige Aussage ist. Die quantitative fünfteilige Skala reicht von sehr hohem Vertrauen (die Aussage ist in mindestens 9 von 10 Fällen richtig) bis sehr geringem Vertrauen (die Aussage ist in weniger als 1 von 10 Fällen richtig). Siehe https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/themen/klima-energie/klimawandel/weltklimarat-ipcc

19. IPCC (2001): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis – Summary for Policymakers: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar3/wg1/

20. Montford, A. W. (2010): The Hockey Stick Illusion, London, Stacey International, 482 p.

21. Mann, M. E., Bradley, R. S., Hughes, M. K. (1999): Northern Hemisphere Temperatures during the past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations: Geophysical Research Letters 26 (6), 759-762.

22. McIntyre, S., McKitrick, R. (2003): Corrections to the Mann et al. (1988) proxy data base and northern hemispheric average temperature series: Energy & Environment 14 (6), 751-771.

23. McShane, B. B., Wyner, A. J. (2011): A statistical analysis of multiple temperature proxies: Are reconstructions of surface temperatures over the last 1000 years reliable?: The Annals of Applied Statistics 5 (1), 5-44.

24. McShane, B. B., Wyner, A. J. (2011): Rejoinder: The Annals of Applied Statistics 5 (1), 99-123.

25. Mann, M. E., Zhang, Z., Hughes, M. K., Bradley, R. S., Miller, S. K., Rutherford, S., Ni, F. (2008): Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia: PNAS 105 (36), 13252-13257.

26. Ljungqvist, F. C. (2010): A new reconstruction of temperature variability in the extra-tropical northern hemisphere during the last two millennia: Geografiska Annaler: Series A 92 (3), 339-351.

27. Hegerl, G. C., Crowley, T. J., Allen, M., Hyde, W. T., Pollack, H. N., Smerdon, J., Zorita, E. (2007): Detection of Human Influence on a New, Validated 1500-Year Temperature Reconstruction: Journal of Climate 20 (4), 650-666.

28. Loehle, C., McCulloch, J. H. (2008): Correction to: A 2000-year global temperature reconstruction based on non-tree ring proxies: Energy & Environment 19 (1), 93-100.

29. PAGES 2k Consortium (2019): Consistent multidecadal variability in global temperature reconstructions and simulations over the Common Era: Nature Geoscience 12 (8), 643-649.

30. PAGES 2k Consortium (2013): Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia: Nature Geosci 6 (5), 339-346.

31. http://t1p.de/mwp

32. Lüning, S., Gałka, M., Vahrenholt, F. (2017): Warming and Cooling: The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Africa and Arabia: Paleoceanography 32 (11), 1219-1235.

33. Lüning, S., Gałka, M., Bamonte, F. P., Rodríguez, F. G., Vahrenholt, F. (2019): The Medieval Climate Anomaly in South America: Quaternary International 508, 70-87.

34. Lüning, S., Gałka, M., García-Rodríguez, F., Vahrenholt, F. (2020): The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Oceania: Environmental Reviews 28 (1), 45-54.

35. Lüning, S., Gałka, M., Vahrenholt, F. (2019): The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Antarctica: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 532, 109251.

36. Büntgen, U., Frank, D., Neuenschwander, T., Esper, J. (2012): Fading temperature sensitivity of Alpine tree growth at its Mediterranean margin and associated effects on large-scale climate reconstructions: Climatic Change 114 (3), 651-666.

37. Brasseur, G. P., Jacob, D., Schuck-Zöller, S. (2017): Klimawandel in Deutschland, Berlin, Springer Open.

38. von Storch, H., Meinke, I., Claußen, M. (2018): Hamburger Klimabericht, Berlin, Springer Spektrum.

39. Quante, M., Colijn, F. (2016): North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment, Cham, Springer.

40. Landesamt für Natur, U. u. V. N.-W. (2016): Klimawandel und Klimafolgen in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Recklinghausen, LANUV-Fachbericht 74, https://www.lanuv.nrw.de/fileadmin/lanuvpubl/3_fachberichte/fabe74.pdf, 103 p.

41. KLIWA (2016): Klimawandel in Süddeutschland, https://www.kliwa.de/_download/KLIWA_Monitoringbericht_2016.pdf

42. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz (2015): Klima-Report Bayern 2015: https://www.stmuv.bayern.de/themen/klimaschutz/forschung/klimareport2015.htm, 200.

43. BACC II Author Team (2015): Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin, Berlin, Springer Open.

44. Fitzhugh, W. W., Ward, E. I. (2000): Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, Washington, D.C., An exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 29 April – 5 September 2000.

45. Weidick, A., Bennike, O., Citterio, M., Nørgaard-Pedersen, N. (2012): Neoglacial and historical glacier changes around Kangersuneq fjord in southern West Greenland: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin 27, 1-68.

46. Chambers, F. M., Brain, S. A., Mauquoy, D., McCarroll, J., Daley, T. (2014): The ‘Little Ice Age’ in the Southern Hemisphere in the context of the last 3000 years: Peat-based proxy-climate data from Tierra del Fuego: The Holocene 24 (12), 1649-1656.

47. Ledru, M.-P., Jomelli, V., Samaniego, P., Vuille, M., Hidalgo, S., Herrera, M., Ceron, C. (2013): The Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Ecuadorian Andes: Climate of the Past 9, 307-321.

48. Hao, Z.-X., Zheng, J.-Y., Ge, Q.-S., Wang, W.-C. (2012): Winter temperature variations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River since 1736 AD: Climate of the Past 8, 1023-1030.

49. Rhodes, R. H., Bertler, N. A. N., Baker, J. A., Steen-Larsen, H. C., Sneed, S. B., Morgenstern, U., Johnsen, S. J. (2012): Little Ice Age climate and oceanic conditions of the Ross Sea, Antarctica from a coastal ice core record: Climate of the Past 8, 1223-1238.

50. Diodato, N., Bellocchi, G. (2012): Discovering the anomalously cold Mediterranean winters during the Maunder minimum: The Holocene 22 (5), 589-596.

51. Solomina, O. N., Bradley, R. S., Jomelli, V., Geirsdottir, A., Kaufman, D. S., Koch, J., McKay, N. P., Masiokas, M., Miller, G., Nesje, A., Nicolussi, K., Owen, L. A., Putnam, A. E., Wanner, H., Wiles, G., Yang, B. (2016): Glacier fluctuations during the past 2000 years: Quaternary Science Reviews 149, 61-90.

52. Kirkbride, M. P., Dugmore, A. J. (2008): Two millennia of glacier advances from southern Iceland dated by tephrochronology: Quaternary Research 70 (3), 398-411.

53. Mernild, S. H., Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Chylek, P., Liston, G. E., Hasholt, B. (2012): Climate-driven fluctuations in freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, East Greenland, during the last 4000 years: The Holocene 22 (2), 155-164.

54. Kopp, R. E., Kemp, A. C., Bittermann, K., Horton, B. P., Donnelly, J. P., Gehrels, W. R., Hay, C. C., Mitrovica, J. X., Morrow, E. D., Rahmstorf, S. (2016): Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (11), E1434-E1441.

55. Blom, P. (2017): Die Welt aus den Angeln: Eine Geschichte der Kleinen Eiszeit von 1570 bis 1700 sowie der Entstehung der modernen Welt, verbunden mit einigen Überlegungen zum Klima der Gegenwart, München, Carl Hanser Verlag.

56. Seewald, B. (2015): Kleine Eiszeit: Der Klimawandel hat Europa schon einmal zerstört: Die Welt, 24.11.2015, https://www.welt.de/geschichte/article149168932/Der-Klimawandel-hat-Europa-schon-einmal-zerstoert.html

57. Brunner, K. (2004): Die Seegfrörnen des Bodensees: Schriften des Vereins für Geschichte des Bodensees und seiner Umgebung 122, 71-84.

58. Grove, J. M. (1966): The Little Ice Age in the Massif of Mont Blanc: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (40), 129-143.

59. Perazio, V. (2014): Labor Montblanc (Film): Arte, https://programm.ard.de/TV/arte/labor-montblanc/eid_2872418972369359?print=1

60. IPCC (2013): Chapter Comparing Reconstructions and Simulations, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, Cambridge University Press, S. 412-415.

61. Büntgen, U., Krusic, P. J., Verstege, A., Sangüesa-Barreda, G., Wagner, S., Camarero, J. J., Ljungqvist, F. C., Zorita, E., Oppenheimer, C., Konter, O., Tegel, W., Gärtner, H., Cherubini, P., Reinig, F., Esper, J. (2017): New Tree-Ring Evidence from the Pyrenees Reveals Western Mediterranean Climate Variability since Medieval Times: Journal of Climate 30 (14), 5295-5318.

62. Wilson, R., Anchukaitis, K., Briffa, K. R., Büntgen, U., Cook, E., D’Arrigo, R., Davi, N., Esper, J., Frank, D., Gunnarson, B., Hegerl, G., Helama, S., Klesse, S., Krusic, P. J., Linderholm, H. W., Myglan, V., Osborn, T. J., Rydval, M., Schneider, L., Schurer, A., Wiles, G., Zhang, P., Zorita, E. (2016): Last millennium northern hemisphere summer temperatures from tree rings: Part I: The long term context: Quaternary Science Reviews 134, 1-18.

63. Luterbacher, J., Werner, J. P., Smerdon, J. E., Fernández-Donado, L., González-Rouco, F. J., Barriopedro, D., Ljungqvist, F. C., Büntgen, U., Zorita, E., Wagner, S., Esper, J., McCarroll, D., Toreti, A., Frank, D., Jungclaus, J. H., Barriendos, M., Bertolin, C., Bothe, O., Brázdil, R., Camuffo, D., Dobrovolný, P., Gagen, M., García-Bustamante, E., Ge, Q., Gómez-Navarro, J. J., Guiot, J., Hao, Z., Hegerl, G. C., Holmgren, K., Klimenko, V. V., Martín-Chivelet, J., Pfister, C., Roberts, N., Schindler, A., Schurer, A., Solomina, O., Gunten, L. v., Wahl, E., Wanner, H., Wetter, O., Xoplaki, E., Yuan, N., Zanchettin, D., Zhang, H., Zerefos, C. (2016): European summer temperatures since Roman times: Environmental Research Letters 11 (2), 024001.

64. Fernández-Donado, L., González-Rouco, J. F., Raible, C. C., Ammann, C. M., Barriopedro, D., García-Bustamante, E., Jungclaus, J. H., Lorenz, S. J., Luterbacher, J., Phipps, S. J., Servonnat, J., Swingedouw, D., Tett, S. F. B., Wagner, S., Yiou, P., Zorita, E. (2013): Large-scale temperature response to external forcing in simulations and reconstructions of the last millennium: Clim. Past 9 (1), 393-421.

65. IPCC (2014): Beiträge zur beobachteten Veränderung der Oberflächenteperatur über den Zeitraum 1951-2010, Abbildung SPM.3, Seite 6, Klimaänderung 2014: Synthesebericht. Beitrag der Arbeitsgruppen I, II und III zum Fünften Sachstandsbericht des Zwischenstaatlichen Ausschusses für Klimaänderungen (IPCC) (deutsche Übersetzung).

66. Miller, G. H., Geirsdóttir, Á., Zhong, Y., Larsen, D. J., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., Holland, M. M., Bailey, D. A., Refsnider, K. A., Lehman, S. J., Southon, J. R., Anderson, C., Björnsson, H., Thordarson, T. (2012): Abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age triggered by volcanism and sustained by sea-ice/ocean feedbacks: Geophysical Research Letters 39 (2).

67. Brönnimann, S., Franke, J., Nussbaumer, S. U., Zumbühl, H. J., Steiner, D., Trachsel, M., Hegerl, G. C., Schurer, A., Worni, M., Malik, A., Flückiger, J., Raible, C. C. (2019): Last phase of the Little Ice Age forced by volcanic eruptions: Nature Geoscience 12 (8), 650-656.

68. Moreno-Chamarro, E., Zanchettin, D., Lohmann, K., Jungclaus, J. H. (2017): An abrupt weakening of the subpolar gyre as trigger of Little Ice Age-type episodes: Climate Dynamics 48 (3), 727-744.

69. Sigl, M., Winstrup, M., McConnell, J. R., Welten, K. C., Plunkett, G., Ludlow, F., Buntgen, U., Caffee, M., Chellman, N., Dahl-Jensen, D., Fischer, H., Kipfstuhl, S., Kostick, C., Maselli, O. J., Mekhaldi, F., Mulvaney, R., Muscheler, R., Pasteris, D. R., Pilcher, J. R., Salzer, M., Schupbach, S., Steffensen, J. P., Vinther, B. M., Woodruff, T. E. (2015): Timing and climate forcing of volcanic eruptions for the past 2,500 years: Nature 523 (7562), 543-549.

70. Stoffel, M., Khodri, M., Corona, C., Guillet, S., Poulain, V., Bekki, S., Guiot, J., Luckman, B. H., Oppenheimer, C., Lebas, N., Beniston, M., Masson-Delmotte, V. (2015): Estimates of volcanic-induced cooling in the Northern Hemisphere over the past 1,500 years: Nature Geoscience 8, 784.

71. Lüning, S., Vahrenholt, F. (2017): Paleoclimatological Context and Reference Level of the 2°C and 1.5°C Paris Agreement Long-Term Temperature Limits: Frontiers in Earth Science 5 (104).

72. Knutti, R., Rogelj, J., Sedlacek, J., Fischer, E. M. (2016): A scientific critique of the two-degree climate change target: Nature Geosci 9 (1), 13-18.

73. Hawkins, E., Ortega, P., Suckling, E., Schurer, A., Hegerl, G., Jones, P., Joshi, M., Osborn, T. J., Masson-Delmotte, V., Mignot, J., Thorne, P., Oldenborgh, G. J. v. (2017): Estimating changes in global temperature since the pre-industrial period: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society published Online: 24 January 2017

74. IPCC (2018): Special Report on global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways: http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/.

75. Marcott, S. A., Shakun, J. D., Clark, P. U., Mix, A. C. (2013): A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 Years: Science 339 (6124), 1198-1201.

76. Hawkins, E. (2020): Warming Stripes: www.showyourstripes.info